The Capture of Berwick was the first significant battle of the First War of Scottish Independence in 1296. After a raid on Carlisle, the English, under Edward I, began the initial conquest of Scotland in the first phase of the war. They went to capture Berwick-upon-Tweed, a city that at the time sat just north of the border and was Scotland's most important trading port. The garrison was commanded by William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas, while the besieging party was led by Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford. The English brutally took the city. As many as 10,000 men, women and children were killed - even a woman giving birth was hacked to pieces during her labour in a three day and night orgy of destruction. Then they took the castle, whereupon Douglas surrendered and his life and those of his garrison were spared. But the brutality of the massacre was seen as an exceptionally brutally act and it hardened the resolve of one William Wallace and the son of William Douglas, James (the Black) Douglas.